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Janet Gray, Ph.D.
Janet Gray, Ph.D.

As author of our 2008 and 2010 State of the Evidence reports, Dr. Gray drives the science behind all our work.

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References, Clear Science

Scientific references for the Clear Science section of our website, previously published as the report, State of the Evidence: The Connection Between Breast Cancer and the Environment. Research and writing by Janet Gray, Ph.D. Parenthetical references from the science pages of our website are listed here in alphabetical order.

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M

N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z


Acevedo, R., Parnell, P., Villanueva, H., Chapman, L., Gimenez, T., Gray, S., & Bladwin, W. (2005). The contribution of hepatic steroid metabolism to serum estradiol and estriol concentrations in nonylphenol treated MMTVneu mice and its potential effects on breast cancer incidence and latency. J Appl Toxicol, 25, 339–353.

Adam, B., Bardos, H., & Adany, R. (2005). Increased genotoxic susceptibility of breast epithelial cells to ethylene oxide. Mutation Res, 585, 120–126.

Adams, C., Brown, P., Morello-Frosch, R., Brody, J.G., Rudel, R., Zota, A., Dunagan, S., Tovar, J., & Patton, S. (2011). Disentangling the exposure experience: The roles of community context and report-back of environmental exposure data. J Health Soc  Behav 52, 180–196.

Adams, M., Dozier, A., Shore, R., Lipshultz, S., Schwartz, R., Constine, L., … Fisher, S. (2010). Breast cancer risk 55  years after irradiation for an enlarged thymus and its implications for early childhood medical irradiation today. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 19, 48–58.

Adlercreutz, H. (2003). Phytoestrogens and breast cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 83, 113–118.

Ahlbom, A., Cardis, E., Green, A., Linet, M., Savitz, D., & Swerdlow, A. (2001). Review of the epidemiological literature on MF and health. Environ Health Persp, 109, 911–933.

Ahn, K. C., Zhao, B., Chen, J., Cherednichenko, G., Sanmarti, E., Denison, M. S., … Hammock, B. D. (2008). In vitro biologic activities of the antimicrobials triclocarban, its analogs, and triclosan in bioassay screens: Receptor-based bioassay screens. Environ Health Persp, 116(9), 1203–1210.

Åkesson, A., Julin, B., & Wolk, A. (2008). Long-term dietary cadmium intake and postmenopausal endometrial cancer incidence: A population-based prospective cohort study. Cancer Res, 68(15), 6435–6441.

Aksglaede, L., Juul, A., Leffers, H., Skakkebaek, N., & Andersson, A. (2006). The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens. Hum Reprod Update, 12, 341–349.

Al-Dobaib, S., & Mousa, H. (2009). Benefits and risks of growth promoters in animal production. J Food Agric Environ, 7, 202–208.

Alexander, B., Mandel, J., Baker, B., Burns, C., Bartels, M., Acquavella, J., & Gustin, C. (2007). Biomonitoring of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid exposure and dose in farm families. Environ Health Persp, 115, 370–376.

Ali, I., Damdimopoulou, P., Stenius, U., Adamsson, A., Mäkelä, S. I., Åkesson, A., … Halldin, K. (2012). Cadmium-induced effects on cellular signaling pathways in the liver of transgenic estrogen reporter mice. Toxicol Sci, 127(1), 66–75.

Ali, I., Penttinen-Damdimopoulou, P. E., Mäkelä, S. I., Berglund, M., Stenius, U., Åkesson, A., … Halldin, K. (2010). Estrogen-like effects of cadmium in vivo do not appear to be mediated via the classical estrogen receptor transcriptional pathway. Environ Health Persp, 118(10), 1389–1394.

Allen, N., Roddam, A., Allen, D., Fentiman, I., Peto, J., Holly, J., … Silva, I. (2005). A prospective study of serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1), IGF-II, IGF-binding protein-3 and breast cancer risk. Br J Cancer, 92, 1283–1287.

Allmyr, M., Adolfsson-Erici, M., McLachlan, M., & Sandborgh-Englund, G. (2006). Triclosan in plasma and milk from Swedish nursing mothers and their exposure via personal care products. Sci Total Environ, 372, 87–93.

Althuis, M., Brogan, D., Coates, R., Daling, J., Gammon, M., Malone, K., … Brinton, L. (2003). Breast cancers among very young premenopausal women - United States. Cancer Causes Control, 14, 151–160.

Althuis, M., Dozier, J., Anderson, W., Devesa, S., & Brinton, L. (2005). Global trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality 1973-1997. Int J Epidemiol, 34, 405–412.

Altman, R., Morello-Frosch, R., Brody, J., Rudel, R., Brown, P., & Averick, M. (2008). Pollution comes home and gets personal: Women’s experience of household chemical exposure. J Health Soc Behav, 49, 417–434.

Ambrosone, C., Freudenheim, J., Graham, S., Marshall, J., Vena, J., Brasure, J., … Shields, P. (1996). Cigarette smoking, N-acetyltransferase 2 polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk. J Am Med Assoc, 276, 1494–1501.

Andersen, H., Vinggaard, A., Rasmussen, T., Gjermandsen, I., & Bonefeld-Jorgensen, E. (2002). Effects of currently used pesticides in assays for estrogenicity, androgenicity, and aromatase activity in vitro. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 179, 1–12.

Anderson, G. L., Chlebowski, R. T., Aragaki, A. K., Kuller, L. H., Manson, J. E., Gass, M., … Wactawski-Wende, J. (2012). Conjugated equine oestrogen and breast cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: extended follow-up of the Women’s Health Initiative randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Oncol, 13(5), 476–486.

Anderson, G., Limacher, M., Assaf, A., Bassford, T., Beresford, S., Black, H., … Wasserthell-Smoller, S. (2004). Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: The Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled study. J Am Med Assoc, 291, 1701–1712.

Anderson, H., & Wolff, M. (2000). Environmental contaminants in human milk. J Expos Anal Environ Epidemiol, 10, 755–760.

Anderson, W., Matsuno, R., Sherman, M., Lissowska, J., Gail, M., Brinton, L., … Garcia-Closas, M. (2007). Estimating age-specific breast cancer risks: a descriptive tool to identify age interactions. Cancer Causes Control, 18, 439–447.

Andersson, P., Blom, A., Johannisson, A., Pesonen, M., Tysklind, M., Berg, A., … Norrgren, L. (1999). Assessment of PCBs and hydroxylated PCBs as potential xenoestrogens: In vitro studies based on MCF-7 cell proliferation and induction of vitellogenin in primary culture of rainbow trout hepatocytes. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 37, 145–150.

Andersson, T., Johansson, A., Hsieh, C., Cnattingius, S., & Lambe, M. (2009). Increasing incidence of pregnancy-associated breast cancer in Sweden. Obstet Gynecol, 114, 568–572.

Andreeva, V., Unger, J., & Pentz, M. (2007). Breast cancer among immigrants: a systematic review and new research directions. J Immigrant Minor, 9, 307–322.

Andres, S., Abraham, K., Appel, K. E., & Lampen, A. (2011). Risks and benefits of dietary isoflavones for cancer. Cr Rev Toxicol, 41(6), 463–506. 

Andrieu, N., Easton, D., Chang-Claud, J., Rookus, M., Brohet, R., Cardis, E., … Goldgar, D. (2006). Effect of chest X-rays on the risk of breast cancer among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers in the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study: A report from EMBRACE, GEGNNEPSO, GEO-HEBON, and IBCCS Collaborators’ Group. J Clin Oncol, 24, 3361–3366.

Angerer, J., Bird, M., Burke, T., Doerrer, N., Needham, L., Robison, S., … Zenick, H. (2006). Strategic biomonitoring initiatives: Moving the science forward. Toxicol Sci, 93, 3–10.

Anjum, B., Singh, R. B., Verma, N., Singh, R., Mahdi, A. A., Singh, R. K., … Wilson, D. W. (2012). Associations of circadian disruption of sleep and nutritional factors with risk of cancer. Open Nutraceuticals J, 5(Suppl.1), 124–135.

Antoniou, C., Koukouraki, E., & Diamadopoulos, E. (2009). Analysis of selected pharmaceutical compounds and endocrine disruptors in municipal wastewater using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography. Water Environ Res, 81, 664–669.

Apelberg, B. J., Goldman, L. R., Calafat, A. M., Herbstman, J. B., Kuklenyik, Z., Heidler, J., … Witter, F. R. (2007). Determinants of fetal exposure to polyfluoroalkyl compounds in Baltimore, Maryland. Environ Sci Tech, 41(11), 3891–3897.

Apelberg, B. J., Witter, F. R., Herbstman, J. B., Calafat, A. M., Halden, R. U., Needham, L. L., & Goldman, L. R. (2007). Cord serum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in relation to weight and size at birth. Environ Health Persp, 115(11), 1670–1676.

Arnold, S., Klotz, D., Collins, B., Vonier, P., Guillette, L. J., & McLachlan, J. (1996). Synergistic activation of estrogen receptor with combinations of environmental chemicals. Science, 272, 1489–1492.

Aronson, K., Miller, A., Woolcott, C., Sterns, E., McCready, D., Lickley, L., … Weber, J. (2000). Breast adipose tissue concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorines and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 9, 55–63.

Arslan, A., Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A., Lukanova, A., Afanasyeva, Y., Katz, J., Levitz, M., … Toniolo, P. (2006). Effects of parity on pregnancy hormonal profiles across ethnic groups with a diverse incidence of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 15, 2123–2130.

Asara, Y., Marchal, J. A., Bandiera, P., Mazzarello, V., Delogu, L. G., Sotgiu, M. A., … Madeddu, R. (2012). Cadmium influences the 5-Fluorouracil cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cells. Eur J Histochem, 56(1), 1–6.

Athar, M., Back, J., Kopelovich, L., Bickers, D., & Kim, A. (2009). Multiple molecular targets of resveratrol: anti-carcinogenic mechanisms. Arch Biochem Biophys, 486, 95–102.

Aubé, M., Larochelle, C., & Ayotte, P. (2011). Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines. Environ Res, 111(3), 337–347. 

Aylward, L.L., Kirman, C.R., Schoeny, R., Portier, C.J., & Hays, S.M. (2013). Evaluation of biomonitoring data from the CDC national exposure report in a risk assessment context: Perspectives across chemicals.  Envir Health Persp 121, 287–294.

Ayyanan, A., Laribi, O., Schuepbach-Mallepell, S., Schrick, C., Gutierrez, M., Tanos, T., … Brisken, C. (2011). Perinatal exposure to bisphenol a increases adult mammary gland progesterone response and cell number. Molecular Endocrinology, 25(11), 1915–1923.


Baccarelli, A., & Bollati, V. (2009). Epigenetics and environmental chemicals. Curr Opin Pediatr, 21, 243–251.

Balakrishnan, B., Henare, K., Thorstensen, E. B., Ponnampalam, A. P., & Mitchell, M. D. (2010). Transfer of bisphenol A across the human placenta. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 202(4), 393.e1–7. 

Balazs, C.L., & Morello-Frosch, R. (2013). The three Rs: How community-based participatory research strengthens the rigor, relevance, and reach of science. Environ Justice 6, 9–16.

Ballard, T., Lagorio, S., De Angelis, G., & Verdecchia, A. (2000). Cancer incidence and mortality among flight personnel: A meta-analysis. Aviat Space Environ Med, 71, 216–224.

Balmain, A., & Harris, C. (2000). Carcinogenesis, in mouse and human cells: parallels and paradoxes. Carcinogenesis, 21, 371–377.

Band, P., Le, N., Fang, R., Deschamps, M., Gallagher, R.P., & Yang, P. (2000). Identification of occupational cancer risks in British Columbia: A population-based case-control study of 995 incident breast cancer cases by menopausal status, controlling for confounding factors. J Occup Environ Med 42, 284–310.

Band, P., Le, N., Fang, R., & Deschamps, M. (2002). Carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting effects of cigarette smoke and risk of breast cancer. Lancet, 360, 1033–1034.

Bandera, E. V., Chandran, U., Buckley, B., Lin, Y., Isukapalli, S., Marshall, I., … Zarbl, H. (2011). Urinary mycoestrogens, body size and breast development in New Jersey girls. Sci Total Environ, 409(24), 5221–5227. 

Barcellos-Hoff, M., Park, C., & Wright, E. (2005). Radiation and the microenvironment: Tumorogenesis and therapy. Nat Rev Cancer, 5, 867–875.

Barlow, B., Cory-Slechta, D., Richfield, E., & Thiruchelvam, M. (2007). The gestational environment and Parkinson’s disease: Evidence for neurodevelopmental origins of a neurodegenerative disease. Reprod Toxicol, 23, 457–470.

Barr, L., Metaxas, G., Harbach, C. A. J., Savoy, L. A., & Darbre, P. D. (2012). Measurement of paraben concentrations in human breast tissue at serial locations across the breast from axilla to sternum. J Appl Toxicol, 32(3), 219–232. 

Bauer, K., Brown, M., Cress, R., Parise, C., & Caggiano, V. (2007). Descriptive analysis of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and HER2-negative invasive breast cancer, the so-called triple-negative phenotype: A population-based study from the California Cancer Registry. Cancer, 109, 1721–1728.

Beale, L., Hodgson, S., Abellan, J.J., LeFevre, S., & Jarup, L. (2010). Evaluation of spatial relationships between health and the environment: The rapid inquiry facility. Envir Health Persp 118, 1306–1312.

Beard, J. (2006). DDT and human health. Sci Total Environ, 355, 78–89.

Beiki, O., Hall, P., Ekbom, A., & Moradi, T. (2012). Breast cancer incidence and case fatality among 4.7 million women in relation to social and ethnic background: a population-based cohort study. Breast Cancer Res, 14(1), R5. 

Belli, P., Bellaton, C., Durand, J., Balleydier, S., Milhau, N., Mure, M., … Le Jan, C. (2010). Fetal and neonatal exposure to the mycotoxin zearalenone induces phenotypic alterations in adult rat mammary gland. Food Chem Toxicol, 48(10), 2818–2826. 

Belli, S., Comba, P., De Santis, M., Grignoli, M., & Sasco, A. (1992). Mortality study of workers employed by the Italian National Institute of Health, 1960-1989. Scand J Work Environ Health, 18, 64–67.

Bellinger, D. C. (2008). Lead neurotoxicity and socioeconomic status: conceptual and analytical issues. Neurotoxicology, 29(5), 828–832. 

Benbrahim-Tallaa, L., Tokar, E., Diwan, B., Dill, A., Coppin, J., & Waalkes, M. (2009). Cadmium malignantly transforms normal human breast epithelial cells into a basal-like phenotype. Environ Health Persp, 117, 1847–1852.

Bennett, M., & Davis, B. (2002). The identification of mammary carcinogens in rodent bioassays. Environ Mol Mutagenesis, 39, 150–157.

Benotti, M., Trenholm, R., Vanderford, B., Holady, J., Stanford, B., & Snyder, S. (2009). Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in U.S. drinking water. Environ Sci Technol, 43, 597–603.

Benzoni, E., Minervini, F., Giannoccaro, A., Fornelli, F., Vigo, D., & Visconti, A. (n.d.). Influence of in vitro exposure to mycotoxin zearalenone and its derivatives on swine sperm quality. Reprod Toxicol, 25, 461–467.

Beral, V. (2003). Breast cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. Lancet, 362(9382), 419–427.

Bernholtz, S., Laitman, Y., Kaufman, B., Paluch Shimon, S., & Friedman, E. (2011). Cancer risk in Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: Effects of oral contraceptive use and parental origin of mutation. Breast Cancer Res Tr, 129(2), 557–563.

Bernstein, L., Allen, M., Anton-Culver, H., Deapen, D., Horn-Ross, P., Peel, D., … Ross, R. (2002). High breast cancer incidence rates among California teachers: Results from the California Teachers. Study -  United States. Cancer Causes Control, 13, 625–635.

Berrington-de-Gonzalez, A., Berg, C., Visvanathan, K., & Robson, M. (2009). Estimated risk of radiation-induced breast cancer from mammographic screening for young BRCA mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst, 101, 205–209.

Berrington-de-Gonzalez, A., Mahesh, M., & Kim, K.-P. (2009). Projected cancer risks from computed tomographic scans performed in the United States in 2007. Arch Intern Med, 169, 2071–2077.

Betancourt AM, Eltoum IA, Desmond RA, Russo J, Lamartiniere CA (2011).  In utero exposure to bisphenol a shifts the window of susceptibility for mammary carcinogenesis in the rat.  Environmental Health Perspectives 119: 1614-1619.

Beyea, J., Stellman, S., Hatch, M., & Gammon, M. (2008). Airborne emissions from 1961 to 2004 of benzo(a)pyrene from U.S. vehicles per km of travel based on tunnel studies. Environ Sci Technol, 47, 7315–7320.

Bhatia, S., Yasui, Y., Robison, L., Birch, J., Bogue, M., Diller, L., … Meadows, A. (n.d.). High risk of subsequent neoplasms continues with extended follow-up of childhood Hodgkin’s disease: report from the Late Effects Study Group. J Clin Oncol, 21, 4386–94.

Bhatti, P., Doody, M., Alexander, B., Yuenger, J., Simon, S., Weinstock, R., … Sigurdson, A. (2007). Breast cancer risk polymorphisms and interactions with ionizing radiation among U.S. radiologic technologists. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 17, 2007–2011.

Bibbo, M., Gill, W., Azizi, F., Blough, R., Fang, V., Rosenfield, R., … Wied, G. (1977). Follow-up study of male and female offspring of DES-exposed mothers. Obstet Gynecol J, 49, 1–8.

Biglia, N., Sgro, L., Defabiani, E., De Rosa, G., Ponzone, R., Marenco, D., & Sismondi, P. (2005). The influence of hormone replacement therapy on the pathology of breast cancer. EJSO: J Cancer Surg, 31, 467–472.

Birnbaum, L., & Fenton, S. (2003). Cancer and developmental exposure to endocrine disruptors. Environ Health Persp, 111, 389–394.

Blask, D. (2009). Melatonin, sleep disturbance and cancer risk. Sleep Med Rev, 13, 257–264.

Blask, D., Brainard, G., Dauchy, R., Hanifin, J., Davidson, L., Krause, J., … Zalatan, F. (2005). Melatonin-depleted blood from premenopausal women exposed to light at night stimulates growth of human breast cancer xenografts in nude rats. Cancer Res, 65, 11174–11184.

Blask, D. E., Hill, S. M., Dauchy, R. T., Xiang, S., Yuan, L., Duplessis, T., … Sauer, L. A. (2011). Circadian regulation of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms of human breast cancer growth by the nocturnal melatonin signal and the consequences of its disruption by light at night. J Pineal Res, 51(3), 259–269. 

Boice, J. (2001). Radiation and breast carcinogenesis. Med & Pediatr Oncol, 36, 508–513.

Bonde, J. P., Hansen, J., Kolstad, H. A., Mikkelsen, S., Olsen, J. H., Blask, D. E., … Åkerstedt, T. (2012). Work at night and breast cancer - report on evidence-based options for preventive actions. Scand J Work Environ Health, 38(4), 380–390.

Bonefeld-Jorgensen, E.C., Long, M., Bossi, R., Ayotte, P., Asmund, G., Krüger, T., … Dewailly, E. (2011). Perfluorinated compounds are related to breast cancer risk in Greenlandic Inuit: A case control study. Environ Health-Glob, 10(1).

Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva C, Long, M., Bossi, R., Ayotte, P., Asmund, G., Krüger, T., … Dewailly, E. (2011). Perfluorinated compounds are related to breast cancer risk in Greenlandic Inuit: a case control study. Environ Health-Glob, 10, 88. 

Bonner, M., Han, D., Nie, J., Rogerson, P., Vena, J., Muti, P., … Freudenheim, J. (2005). Breast cancer risk and exposure in early life to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using total suspended particulates as a proxy measure. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 14, 53–60.

Borch, J., Axelstad, M., Vinggaard, A., Metzdorff, S., Brokken, L., & Dalgaard, M. (2006). Mechanisms underlying the anti-androgenic effects of diethylhexyl phthalate in fetal rat testis. Toxicol, 223, 144–155.

Borgquist, S., Anagnostaki, L., Jirstom, K., Landberg, G., & Manjer, J. (2007). Breast tumours following combined hormone replacement therapy express favorable prognostic factors. Int J Cancer, 120, 2202–2207.

Borrell, B. (2010). The big test for bisphenol A. Nature, 464, 1122–1124.

Borrell, L. N., Factor-Litvak, P., Wolff, M. S., Susser, E., & Matte, T. D. (2004). Effect of socioeconomic status on exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) among pregnant African-American women. Arch Environ Health, 59(5), 250–255. 

Boucher, B., Cotterchio, M., Krieger, N., & Thompson, L. (2008). Soy formula and breast cancer risk. Epidemiology, 19, 165–168.

Bourguignon, J., Rasier, G., Lebrethon, M., Gerard, A., Naveau, E., & Parent, A. (2010). Neuroendocrine disruption of pubertal timing and interactions between homeostasis of reproduction and energy balance. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 324, 110–120.

Bowen, R., Stebbing, J., & Jones, L. (2006). A review of the ethnic differences in breast cancer. Pharmacogenomics, 7, 935–942.

Braathen, M., Mortensen, A., Sandvik, M., Skare, J., & Arukwe, A. (2009). Estrogenic effects of selected hydroxy polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in primary culture of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) hepatocytes. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 56, 111–122.

Bradbury, A. R., & Olopade, O. I. (2007). Genetic susceptibility to breast cancer. Rev Endocr Metab Dis, 8(3), 255–267.

Bradley, E., Boughtflower, V., Smith, T., Speck, D., & Castle, L. (2005). Survey of the migration of melamine and formaldehyde from melamine food contact articles available on the UK market. Food Addit Contam, 22, 597–606.

Brama, M., Gnessi, L., Basciani, S., Cerulli, N., Politi, L., Spera, G., … Migilaccio, S. (2007). Cadmium induces mitogenic signaling in breast cancer cell by an Eralpha-dependent mechanism. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 264, 102–108.

Brand, J. S., Chan, M.-F., Dowsett, M., Folkerd, E., Wareham, N. J., Luben, R. N., … Khaw, K.-T. (2011). Cigarette smoking and endogenous sex hormones in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocr Metab, 96(10), 3184–3192. 

Brand, R., McMahon, L., Jendrzejewski, J., & Charron, A. (2007). Transdermal absorption of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid is enhanced by both ethanol consumption and sunscreen application. Food Chem Toxicol, 45, 93–97.

Braun, J. M., Kalkbrenner, A. E., Calafat, A. M., Yolton, K., Ye, X., Dietrich, K. N., & Lanphear, B. P. (2011). Impact of early-life bisphenol A exposure on behavior and executive function in children. Pediatrics, 128(5), 873–882. 

Braun, J. M., Yolton, K., Dietrich, K. N., Hornung, R., Ye, X., Calafat, A. M., & Lanphear, B. P. (2009). Prenatal bisphenol A exposure and early childhood behavior. Environ Health Persp, 117(12), 1945–1952. 

Braun, J., Yolton, K., Dietrich, K., Hornung, R., Ye, X., Calafat, A., & Lanphear, B. (2009). Prenatal bisphenol A exposure and early childhood behavior. Environ Health Persp, 117, 1945–1952.

Braun, L., Fausto-Sterling, A., Fullwiley, D., Hammonds, E. M., Nelson, A., Quivers, W., … Shields, A. E. (2007). Racial categories in medical practice: how useful are they? PLoS Med, 4(9), e271. 

Brausch, J. M., & Rand, G. M. (2011). A review of personal care products in the aquatic environment: Environmental concentrations and toxicity. Chemosphere, 82(11), 1518–1532.

Brenner, D., Doll, R., Goodhead, D., Hall, E., Land, C., Little, J., … Zaider, M. (2003). Cancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing radiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci, 100, 13761–13766.

Brenner, D. J. (2011). Are x-ray backscatter scanners safe for airport passenger screening? For most individuals, probably yes, but a billion scans per year raises long-term public health concerns. Radiology, 259(1), 6–10. 

Brinton, L., Scoccia, B., Moghissi, K., Westhoff, C., Althuis, M., Mabie, J., & Lamb, E. (2004). Breast cancer risk associated with ovulation-stimulating drugs. Hum Reprod, 19, 2005–2013.

Brody, J., Aschengrau, A., McKelvey, W., Rudel, R., Swartz, C., & Kennedy, T. (2004). Breast cancer risk and historical exposure to pesticides from wide-area applications assessed with GIS. Environ Health Persp, 112, 889–897.

Brody, J., Morello-Frosch, R., Zota, A., Brown, P., Perez, C., & Rudel, R. (2009). Linking exposure assessment science with policy objectives for environmental justice and breast cancer advocacy: The Northern California Household Exposure Study. Am J Public Health, 99, 600–609.

Brody, J., Moysich, K., Humblet, O., Attfield, K., Beehler, G., & Rudel, R. (2007). Environmental pollutants and breast cancer. Epidemiol Stud Cancer, 109, 2667–2711.

Brody, J. G., & Rudel, R. A. (2003). Environmental pollutants and breast cancer. Environ Health Persp, 111(8), 1007–1019.

Brody, J., Rudel, R., Melly, S., & Maxwell, N. (1998). Endocrine disruptors and breast cancer. Forum Appl Res Public Policy, 13, 24–31.

Broeks, A., Braaf, L. M., Wessels, L. F. A., Van de Vijver, M., De Bruin, M. L., Stovall, M., … Van ’t Veer, L. J. (2010). Radiation-Associated Breast Tumors Display a Distinct Gene Expression Profile. Int J Radiat Oncol, 76(2), 540–547.

Brophy, J., Keith, M., Gorey, K., Luginaah, I., Laukkanen, E., Hellyer, D., … Gilbertson, M. (2006). Occupation and breast cancer: A Canadian case-control study. Ann NY Acad Sci, 1076, 765–777.

Brophy JR, Keith MM, Watterson A, Park R, Gilbertson M, Maticka-Tyndale E, Beck M, Abu-Zahra, Schneider K, Reinhartz A, DeMatteo R, Luginaah I (2012). Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case–control study. Environ Health. 2012; 11: 87. Published online 2012 November 19. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-11-87.

Brotons, J., Olea-Serrano, M., Villalobos, M., Pedraza, V., & Olea, N. (1995). Xenoestrogens released from lacquer coatings in food cans. Environ Health Persp, 103, 608–612.

Brown, N., Manzolillo, P., Zhang, J., Wang, J., & Lamartiniere, C. (1998). Prenatal TCDD and predisposition to mammary cancer in rats. Carcinogenesis, 19, 1623–1629.

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