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Janet Gray, Ph.D.
Janet Gray, Ph.D.

As author of our 2008 and 2010 State of the Evidence reports, Dr. Gray drives the science behind all our work.

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References, Clear Science (Q-Z)

Scientific references for the Clear Science section of our website, previously published as the report, State of the Evidence: The Connection Between Breast Cancer and the Environment. Research and writing by Janet Gray, Ph.D. Parenthetical references from the science pages of our website are listed here in alphabetical order.

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M

N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z


Quach, T., Nguyen, K., Doan-Billings, P., Okahara, L., Fan, C., & Reynolds, P. (2008). A preliminary study of Vietnamese nail salon workers in Alameda County, California. J Commun Health, 33, 336–343.

Quinn, M. M., Sembajwe, G., Stoddard, A. M., Kriebel, D., Krieger, N., Sorensen, G., … Barbeau, E. M. (2007). Social disparities in the burden of occupational exposures: results of a cross-sectional study. Am J Ind Med, 50(12), 861–875. 


Rabstein, S., Brüning, T., Harth, V., Fischer, H.-P., Haas, S., Weiss, T., … Pesch, B. (2010). N-acetyltransferase 2, exposure to aromatic and heterocyclic amines, and receptor-defined breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev, 19(2), 100–109.

Rajapakse, N., Silva, E., & Kortenkamp, A. (2002). Combining xenoestrogens at levels below individual no-observed-effect concentrations dramatically enhances steroid hormone action. Environ Health Persp, 110, 917–921.

Rajapaske, N., Ong, D., & Kortenkamp, A. (2001). Defining the impact of weakly estrogenic chemicals on the action of steroidal chemicals. Toxicol Sci, 60, 296–304.

Ralston, S., Coffing, S., Seidel, A., Luch, A., Platt, K., & Baird, W. (1997). Stereoselective activation of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene and its trans-11,12-dihydrodiol to fjord region 11,12-diol 13,14-epoxides in a human mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cell-mediated V79 cell mutation assay. Chem Res Toxciol, 10, 687–693.

Ramamoorthy, K., Wang, F., Chen, I., Safe, S., Norris, J., McDonnell, D., … Korach, K. (1998). Potency of combined estrogenic pesticides: Synergism between synthetic estrogens. Science, 275, 405–406.

Rappaport, S. M. (2011). Implications of the exposome for exposure science. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol, 21(1), 5–9.

Rastogi, S., Schouten, A., De Kruijf, N., & Weijland, J. (1995). Contents of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben and benzylparaben in cosmetic products. Contact Derm, 32, 28–30.

Rauh, V. A., Landrigan, P. J., & Claudio, L. (2008). Housing and health: intersection of poverty and environmental exposures. Ann NY Acad Sci, 1136, 276–288. 

Ravdin, P., Cronin, K., Howlader, N., Berg, C., Chlebowski, R., Feuer, E., … Berry, D. (2007). Decrease in breast cancer incidence in 2003 in the United States. New England J Med, 356, 1670–1674.

Raynor, J., Enoch, R., & Fenton, S. (2005). Adverse effects of prenatal exposure to atrazine during a critical period of mammary gland growth. Toxicol Sci, 87, 255–266.

RC, S., & CJ, P. (1999). Multiple organ carcinogenicity of inhaled chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3- butadiene) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and comparison of dose-response with 1,3-butadiene in mice. Carcinogenesis, 20, 867–878.

Redberg, R. (2009). Cancer risks and radiation exposure from computed tomographic scans. How can we be sure that the benefits outweigh the risks. Arch Intern Med, 169, 2049–2050.

Rees Clayton, E. M., Todd, M., Dowd, J. B., & Aiello, A. E. (2011). The impact of bisphenol A and triclosan on immune parameters in the U.S. population, NHANES 2003-2006. Environ Health Persp, 119(3), 390–396.

Reeves, G., Beral, V., Green, J., Gathani, T., & Bull, D. (2006). Hormonal therapy for menopause and breast-cancer risk by histological type: a cohort study and meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol, 7, 910–918.

Rennix, C., Quinn, M., Amoroso, P., Eisen, E., & Wegman, D. (2005). Risk of breast cancer among enlisted army women occupationally exposed to volatile organic compounds. Am J Ind Med, 48, 157–167.

Rennstam, K., & Hedenfalk, I. (2006). Molecular signatures of progression from benign epithelium to metastatic breast cancer Breast. Cancer Res, 8, 213.

Reynolds, J. (1997). International pesticide trade: Is there any hope for the effective regulation ofcontrolled substances. J Land Use & Environ Law.

Reynolds, P., Hurley, S., Goldberg, D., Anton-Culver, H., Bernstein, L., Deapen, D., … Ziogas, A. (2004). Active smoking, household passive smoking, and breast cancer: Evidence from the California Teachers Study. J Natl Cancer Inst, 96, 29–37.

Rice, S., & Whitehead, S. (2006). Phytoestrogens and breast cancer: promoters or protectors. Endocr Relat Cancer, 13, 995–1015.

Richter, C., Birnbaum, L., Farabollini, F., Newbold, R., Rubin, B., Talsness, C., … Vom Saal, F. (2007). In vivo effects of bisphenol A in laboratory rodent studies. Reprod Toxicol, 24, 199–224.

Rivas, A., Lacroix, M., Olea-Serrano, F., Laios, I., Leclercq, G., & Olea, N. (2002). Estrogenic effect of a series of bisphenol analogues on gene and protein expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 82, 45–53.

Robbins, A., & Clarke, C. (2007). Regional changes in hormone therapy use and breast cancer incidence in California from 2001 to 2004. J Clin Oncol, 25, 3437–3439.

Roberts, D. (2011). Fatal Invention: How Science, Politics, and Big Business Re-create Race in the Twenty-First Century. New York: The New Press.

Robinson, P., Mack, G., Remmers, J., Levy, R., & Mohadjer, L. (1990). Trends of PCB, hexachlorobenzene, and benzene hexachloride levels in the adipose tissue of the U.S. population. Environ Res, 53, 175–192.

Robison, A. K., Sirbasku, D. A., & Stancel, G. M. (1985). DDT supports the growth of an estrogen-responsive tumor. Toxicol Lett, 27(1-3), 109–113.

Rodriguez-Mozaz, S., De Alda, M., & Barcelo, D. (2005). Analysis of bisphenol A in natural waters by means of an optical immmunosensor. Water Res, 39, 5071–5079.

Rogan, W. (1996). Pollutants in breast milk. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 150, 81–90.

Rohr, J., & McCoy, K. (2009). A qualitative meta-analysis reveals consistent effects of atrazine on freshwater fish and amphibians. Environ Health Persp, 118, 20–32.

Ron, E., Ikeda, T., Preston, D., & Tokuoka, S. (2005). Male breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors. J Natl Cancer Inst, 97, 603–605.

Ronckers, C. M., Doody, M. M., Lonstein, J. E., Stovall, M., & Land, C. E. (2008). Multiple diagnostic X-rays for spine deformities and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol, Biomar Prev, 17(3), 605–613. 

Roseboom, T., De Rooij, S., & Painter, R. (2006). The Dutch famine and its long-term consequences for adult health. Early Human Devel, 82, 485–491.

Rosenberg, L., Boggs, D. A., Wise, L. A., Adams-Campbell, L. L., & Palmer, J. R. (2010). Oral contraceptive use and estrogen/progesterone receptor-negative breast cancer among African American women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 19(8), 2073–2079.

Rosenberg, Lynn, Zhang, Y., Coogan, P. F., Strom, B. L., & Palmer, J. R. (2009). A case-control study of oral contraceptive use and incident breast cancer. American journal of epidemiology, 169(4), 473–479. 

Rosenthal, M. S. (2008). Ethical problems with bioidentical hormone therapy. International journal of impotence research, 20(1), 45–52. 

Ross, R., Paganini-Hill, A., Wan, P., & Pike, M. (2000). Effect of hormone replacement therapy on breast cancer risk: estrogen versus estrogen plus progestin. J Natl Cancer Ins, 92, 328–332.

Rossouw, J., Anderson, G., Prentice, R., LaCroix, A., Kooperberg, C., Stefanick, M., … Ockene, J. (2002). Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. J Am Med Assoc, 288, 321–333.

Routledge, E., Parker, J., Odum, J., Ashby, J., & Sumpter, J. (1998). Some alkyl hydroxy benzoate preservatives (parabens) are estrogenic. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 153, 12–19.

Roychoudhuri, R., Evans, H., Robinson, D., & Moller, H. (2004). Radiation-induced malignancies following radiotherapy for breast cancer. Br J Cancer, 91, 868–872.

Rudel, R. A., Fenton, S. E., Ackerman, J. M., Euling, S. Y., & Makris, S. L. (2011). Environmental exposures and mammary gland development: state of the science, public health implications, and research recommendations. Environ Health Persp, 119(8), 1053–1061. 

Rudel, R. A., Gray, J. M., Engel, C. L., Rawsthorne, T. W., Dodson, R. E., Ackerman, J. M., … Brody, J. G. (2011). Food packaging and bisphenol A and bis(2-ethyhexyl) phthalate exposure: findings from a dietary intervention. Environ Health Persp, 119(7), 914–920. 

Rudel, R. A., Seryak, L. M., & Brody, J. G. (2008). PCB-containing wood floor finish is a likely source of elevated PCBs in residents’ blood, household air and dust: a case study of exposure. Environ Health, 7,  art. no.2. 

Rudel, R., Attfield, K., Schifano, J., & Brody, J. (2007). Chemicals causing mammary gland tumors in animals signal new directions for epidemiological chemicals testing, and risk assessment for breast cancer prevention. Cancer, 109 (Suppl, 12, 2635–2666.

Rudel, R., Brody, J., Spengler, J., Vallarino, J., Geno, P., Sun, G., & Yau, A. (2001). Methods to detect selected potential mammary carcinogens and endocrine disruptors in commercial and residential air and dust samples. J Air Water Manag Assoc, 51, 499–513.

Rudel, R., Camann, D., Spengler, J., Korn, L., & Brody, J. (2003). Phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and other endorcrine-disrupting compounds in indoor air and dust. Environ Sci Technol, 37, 4543–4553.

Rudel, R., Geno, P., Melly, S., Sun, G., & Brody, J. (1998). Identification of alkylphenols and other estrogenic phenolic compounds in wastewater, septage, and groundwater on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Environ Sci Technol, 32, 861–69.

Rudel, R., & Perovich, L. (2009). Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air. Atmospheric Environ, 43, 170–181.

Rundle, A., Tang, D., Hibshoosh, H., Estabrook, A., Schnabel, F., Cao, C., … Perera, F. P. (2000). The relationship between genetic damage from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in breast tissue and breast cancer. Carcinogenesis, 21(7), 1281–1289.

Russo, J., Hu, Y., Silva, I., & Russo, I. (2001). Cancer risk related to mammary gland structure and development. Microsc Res Tech, 52, 204–223.

Russo, J., Moral, R., Wang, R., Russo, I., Lamartiniere, C., & Pereira, J. (2008). Effect of prenatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A on mammary gland morphology and gene expression signature. J Endocrinol, 196, 101–112.

Russo, Jose, Santucci-Pereira, J., De Cicco, R. L., Sheriff, F., Russo, P. A., Peri, S., … Russo, I. H. (2012). Pregnancy-induced chromatin remodeling in the breast of postmenopausal women. International journal of cancer. J Int Cancer, 131(5), 1059–1070. 

Ryan, B., Hotchkiss, A., Crofton, K., & Gray Jr., L. (2010). In utero and lactational exposure to bisphenol A, in contrast to ethinyl estradiol, does not alter sectually dimorphic behavior, puberty, fertility, and anatomy of female LE rats. Toxicol Sci, 114, 133–148.


Sadler, A., Pugazhendhi, D., & Darbre, P. (2009). Use of global gene expression patterns in mechanistic studies of oestrogen action in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol, 114, 21–32.

Saeed, M., Rogan, E., & Cavalieri, E. (2009). Mechanism of metabolic activation and DNA adduct formation by the human carcinogen diethylstilbestrol: The defining link to natural estrogens. Int J Cancer, 124, 1276–1284.

Sagiv, S., Gaudet, M., Eng, S., Abrahamson, P., Shantakumar, S., Teitelbaum, S., … Gammon, M. (2009). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts and survival among women with breast cancer. Environ Res, 109, 287–291.

Sakamoto, T., Horiguchi, H., Oguma, E., & Kayama, F. (2009). Effects of diverse dietary phytoestrogens on cell growth, cell cycle and apoptosis in estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer cells. J Nutr Biochem, 21, 856–864.

Saleh, F., Behbehani, A., Asfar, S., Khan, I., & Ibrahim, G. (2011). Abnormal blood levels of trace elements and metals, DNA damage, and breast cancer in the state of Kuwait. Biol Trace Elem Rese, 141(1-3), 96–109.

Salehi, F., Turner, M., Phillips, K., Wigle, D., Krewski, D., & Aronson, K. (2008). Review of the etiology of breast cancer with special attention to organochlorines as potential endocrine disruptors. J Toxicol Environ Health, 11, 276–300.

Salian, S., Doshi, T., & Vanage, G. (2009). Perinatal exposure of rats to Bisphenol A affects the fertility of male offspring. Life Sci, 85(21-22), 742–752. 

Sandau, C., Dewailly, E., Ayotte, P., Duffe, J., & Norstrom, R. (2000). Analysis of hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs (OH-PCBs) and other chlorinated phenolic compounds in whole blood from Canadian Inuit. Environ Health Persp, 108, 611–616.

Sanderson, J., Letcher, R., Heneweer, M., Giesy, J., & Van den Berg, M. (2001). Effects of chloro-S-triazine herbicides and metabolites on aromatase activity in various human cell lines and on vitellogenin production in male carp hepatocytes. Environ Health Persp, 109, 1027–1031.

Santodonato, J. (1997). Review of the estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of poycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: relationship to carcinogenicity. Chemosphere, 34, 835–848.

Sathyanarayana, S., Karr, C., Lozano, P., Brown, E., Calafat, A., Liu, F., & Swan, S. (2008). Baby care products: Possible sources of infant phthalate exposure. Pediatrics, 121, 260–268.

Sathyanarayana, S., Swan, S., & Meeker, J. (2009). Phthalates and other additives in plastics: human exposure and associated health outcomes. Philos Trans Royal Soc, 364, 2097–2113.

Sawada, N., Iwasaki, M., Inoue, M., Takachi, R., Sasazuki, S., Yamaji, T., … Tsugane, S. (2012). Long-term dietary cadmium intake and cancer incidence. Epidemiology, 23(3), 368–376.

Saxena, S., Copas, A., Mercer, C., Johnson, A., Fenton, K., Erens, B., … Wellings, K. (2006). Ethnic variations in sexual activity and contraceptive use: national cross-sectional study. Contraception, 74, 224–233.

Schairer, C., Lubin, J., Troisi, R., Sturgeon, S., Brinton, L., & Hoover, R. (2000). Menopausal estrogen and estrogenprogestin replacement therapy and breast cancer risk. J Am Med Assoc, 283, 485–491.

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Schettler, T. (2005). Human exposure to phthalates via consumer products. Int J Androl, 29, 134–139.

Schlumpf, M., Cotton, B., Conscience, M., Haller, V., Steinmann, B., & Lichtensteiger, W. (2001). In vitro and in vivo estrogenicity of UV screens. Environ Health Persp, 109, 239–244.

Schonfelder, G., Wittfoht, W., Hopp, H., Talsness, C., Paul, M., & Chahoud, I. (2002). Parent Bisphenol A accumulation in the human maternal-fetal-placental unit. Environ Health Persp, 110, 703–707.

Schootman, M., Jeffe, D. B., Lian, M., Gillanders, W. E., & Aft, R. (2009a). The role of poverty rate and racial distribution in the geographic clustering of breast cancer survival among older women: A geographic and multilevel analysis. Am J Epidemiol, 169(5), 554–561.

Schootman, M., Jeffe, D., Lian, M., Gillanders, W., & Aft, R. (2009b). The role of poverty rate and racial distribution in the geographic clustering of breast cancer survival among older women: A geographic and multilevel analysis. Am J Epidemiol, 169, 554–561.

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Silva, N., Peiris-John, R., Wickremasinghe, R., Senanayake, H., & Sathiakumar, N. (2012). Cadmium a metalloestrogen: are we convinced? J Appl Toxicol 32(5), 318–332. 

Silver, S. R., Whelan, E. A., Deddens, J. A., Steenland, N. K., Hopf, N. B., Waters, M. A., … Ward, E. M. (2009). Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of breast cancer. Environ Health Persp, 117(2), 276–282. 

Silver, S., Whelan, E., Deddens, J., Steenland, N., Hopf, N., Waters, M., … Ward, E. (2009). Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of breast cancer. Environ Health Persp, 117, 276–282.

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Slack, R., Gronow, J., & Voulvoulis, N. (2005). Household hazardous waste in municipal landfills: Contaminants in leachate. Sci Total Environ, 337, 119–137.

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Soler, D., Pampalona, J., Tusell, L., & Genesca, A. (2009). Radiation sensitivity increases with proliferation-associated telomere dysfunction in nontransformed human epithelial cells. Aging Cell, 8, 414–425.

Sondergaard, T. E., Hansen, F. T., Purup, S., Nielsen, A. K., Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E. C., Giese, H., & Sørensen, J. L. (2011). Fusarin C acts like an estrogenic agonist and stimulates breast cancer cells in vitro. Toxicology letters, 205(2), 116–121. 

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Soto, A., Chung, K., & Sonnenschein, C. (1994). The pesticides endosulfan, toxaphene, and dieldrin have estrogenic effects on human estrogen-sensitive cells. Environ Health Persp, 102, 380–383.

Soto, A., Justicia, H., Wray, J., & Sonnenschein, C. (1991). p-Nonyl-phenol: An estrogenic xenobiotic released from “modified” polystyrene. Environ Health Persp, 92, 167–173.

Soto, A., Maffini, M., Schaeberle, C., & Sonnenschein, C. (2006). Strengths and weaknesses of in vitro assays for estrogenic and androgenic activity. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab, 20, 15–33.

Soto, A., Maffini, M., & Sonnenschein, C. (2008). Neoplasia as development gone awry: the role of endocrine disruptors. Int J Androl, 31, 288–293.

Soto, A., & Sonnenschein, C. (2004). The somatic mutation theory of cancer: Growing problems with the paradigm. BioEssays, 26, 1097–1107.

Soto, A., Sonnenschein, C., Chung, K., Fernandez, M., Olea, N., & Serrano, F. (1995). The E-SCREEN assay as a tool to identify estrogens: An update on estrogenic environmental pollutants. Environ Health Persp, 103 (Suppl, 7, 113–122.

Soto, A., Vandenberg, L., Maffini, M., & Sonnenschein, C. (2008). Does breast cancer start in the womb. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol, 102, 125–133.

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Sreeja, S., Santhosh Kumar, T.R., Lakshmi, B.S., & Sreeja, S. (2012). Pomegranate extract demonstrate a selective estrogen receptor modulator profile in human tumor cell lines and in vivo models of estrogen deprivation. J Nutr Biochem23, 725–732.

Stahlhut, R., Welshons, W., & Swan, S. (2009). Bisphenol A data in NHANES suggest longer than expected half-life, substantial non-food exposure, or both. Environ Health Persp, 117, 784–789.

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