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Janet Gray, Ph.D.
Janet Gray, Ph.D.

As author of our 2008 and 2010 State of the Evidence reports, Dr. Gray drives the science behind all our work.

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References, Clear Science (I-P)

Scientific references for the Clear Science section of our website, previously published as the report, State of the Evidence: The Connection Between Breast Cancer and the Environment. Research and writing by Janet Gray, Ph.D. Parenthetical references from the science pages of our website are listed here in alphabetical order.

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M

N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z


IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer (1987a). IARC Monogr, Suppl 7: Oestrogens, steroidal. (7/12/2010).

IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer (1987b). IARC Monogr, Suppl 7: Benzene. (7/12/2010).

IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer (1994). IARC Monogr, on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Summaries and Evaluations: Ethylene Oxide. Volume 64. (7/12/2010).

IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer (1997). IARC Monogr, on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Volume 69. (7/12/2010).

IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer (1998). IARC Monogr, Summary and evaluation, Suppl 7: Vinyl chloride. (7/12/2010).

IARC:International Agency for Research on Cancer (1999a). IARC Monogr, on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Volume 71. (7/12/2010).

IARC:International Agency for Research on Cancer (1999b). IARC Monogr, on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Hormonal contraception and postmenopausal hormonal therapy. Volume 72. (7/12/2010).

IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer (2009). IARC Monogr, on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Complete list of agents evaluated and their classification. (7/12/2010).

Ibarluzea JM, Fernandez MF, Santa-Marina L, et al. (2004). Breast cancer and the combined effects of environmental estrogens. Cancer Causes Control, 15:591-601.

IFRA: International Fragrance Association (IFRA). IFRA survey: Transparency list. (7/12/2010).

Ikezuki Y, Tsutsumi O, Takai Y, et al. (2002). Determination of bisphenol A concentrations in human biological fluids reveals significant early prenatal exposure. Hum Reprod, 17:2839-2841.

Imaoka T, Nishimura M, Teramoto, et al. (2005). Cooperative induction of rat mammary cancer by radiation and 1-methyl-1-nitrosurea via the oncogenic pathways involving c-Myc activation and H-ras mutation. Int J Cancer, 115:187-193.

Imaoka T, Nishimura M, Iizuka D, et al. (2009). Radiation-induced mammary carcinogenesis, in rodent models: what’s different from chemical carcinogenesis? J Radiat Res, 50:281-293.

Infante PF, Pesak J (1994). A historical perspective of some occupationally related diseases of women. J Occup Med, 36:826-831.

Ionescu JG, Novotny J, Stejskal V, et al. (2006). Increased levels of transition metals in breast cancer tissue. Neuroendocrinology Lett, 27 (Suppl 1):36-39.

Iso T, Watanabe T, Iwamoto T, et al. (2006). DNA damage caused by bisphenol A and estradiol through estrogenic activity. Biol Pharm Bull, 29:206-210.


Jacobs M, Clapp R (2009a). Cancer Air and Water Pollutants: A Need for Action. The Collaborative on Health and the Environment. (7/27/10).

Jacobs M, Clapp R (2009b). Agriculture and Cancer: A Need for Action. The Collaborative on Health and the Environment. (7/27/10).

Janjua NR, Frederiksen H, Skakkebaek NE, et al. (2008). Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans. Int J Androl, 31:118-130.

Jansen-Van Der Weide M (2009). Mammography screening and radiation-induced breast cancer among women with a familial or genetic predisposition: a metaanalysis. Published abstract of presentation at the 95th annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, Chicago.

Jatoi I, Anderson WF, Rao SR, et al. (2005). Breast cancer trends among black and white women in the United States. J Clin Oncol, 23:7836-7841.

Jayapal M, Bhattacharjee RN, Melendez A, Hande MP (2010). Environmental toxicogenomics: a post-genomic approach to analyzing biological responses to environmental toxins. Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 42:230-240.

Jefferson WN, Doerge D, Padilla-Banks E, et al. (2009). Oral exposure to genistin, the glycosylated form of genistein, during neonatal life adversely affects the female reproductive system. Environ Health Perspect, 117:1883-1889.

Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, et al. (2009). Cancer statistics, 2009. Cancer, 59:225-249.

Jeng Y-J and Watson CS (2011). Combinations of Physiologic Estrogens with Xenoestrogens Alter ERK Phosphorylation Profiles in Rat Pituitary Cells. Environmental Health Perspectives 119:104–112.

Jenkins S, Raghuraman N, Eltoum I, et al. (2009). Oral exposure to bisphenol-A increases dimethlybenzanthracene-induced mammary cancer in rats. Environ Health Perspect, 117:910-915.

Jenkins S, Rowell C, Wang J, et al. (2007). Prenatal TCDD exposure predisposes for mammary cancer in rats. Reprod Toxicol, 23:391-196.

Jernstrom H, Chu W, Vesprini D, et al. (2001). Genetic factors related to racial variation in plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1: Implications for premenopausal breast cancer risk. Molec Genetics Metab, 72:144-154.

Jia, Y., Lu, Y., Wu, K., Lin, Q., Shen, W., Zhu, M., Huang, S., & Chen, J. (2013). Does night work increase the risk of breast cancer? A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Cancer Epidemiol 37, 197–206.

Jiang JT, Ma L, Yuan L, et al. (2007). Study on developmental abnormalities in hypospadiac male rats induced by maternal exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). Toxicol, 232:286-293.

Jobling S, Reynolds T, White R, et al. (1995). A variety of environmentally persistent chemicals, including some phthalate plasticizers, are weakly estrogenic. Environ Health Perspect, 103:582-587.

John EM, Phipps AI, Koo J (2005). Migration history, acculturation, and breast cancer risk in Hispanic women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 14:2905-2913.

Johnson KC, Hu J, Mao Y (2000). Passive and active smoking and breast cancer risk in Canada, 1994-1997, The Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group. Cancer Causes Control, 11:211-221.

Johnson MD, Kenney N, Stoica A, et al. (2003). Cadmium mimics the in vivo effects of estrogen in the uterus and mammary gland. Nat Med, 9:1081-1084.

Johnson, RH, Chien, FL, BLeyer A (2013). Incidence of breast cancer with distant involvement among women in the United States, 1976 to 2009. JAMA 309: 800-805.

Jones BA, Kasl SV, Howe CL, et al. (2004). African American/White differences in breast cancer carcinoma. Cancer, 101: 1293-1301.

JPPPP: Janitorial Products Pollution Prevention Project (2002). Southern California janitorial chemicals safety project. (7/12/2010).


Kaiser, J.C., Jacob, P., Meckbach, R., and Cullings, H.M. (2012). Breast cancer risk in atomic bomb survivors from multi-model inference with incidence data 1958-1998. Radiation and Environ Biophys 51, 1–14.

Kamel F, Hoppin JA (2004). Association of pesticide exposure with neurologic dysfunction and disease. Environ Health Perspect, 112:950-958.

Kang SC, Lee BM (2005). DNA methylation of estrogen receptor α gene by phthalates. J Toxicol Environ Health, 68:1995-2003.

Kato K, Silva MJ, Reidy JA, et al. (2003). Mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate as biomarkers for human exposure assessment to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Environ Health Perspect, 112:327-330.

Kauppila A, Kyyronen P, Hinkula M, Pukkala E (2009). Birth intervals and breast cancer risk. Br J Cancer, 101:1213-1217.

Kemp MQ, Liu W, Thorne PA, et al. (2006). Induction of the transferring receptor gene by benzo[a]pyrene in breast cancer MCF-7 cells: Potential as a biomarker of PAH exposure. Environ Mol Mutagenesis, 47:518-526.

Kettles MA, Browning SR, Prince TS, et al. (1997). Triazine herbicide exposure and breast cancer incidence: An ecological study of Kentucky counties. Environ Health Perspect, 105:1222-1227.

Khosrokhavar R, Rahimifard N, Shoeibi S, et al. (2009). Effects of zearalenone and a-zearalenol in comparison with Raloxifene on T47D cells. Toxicol Mech Methods, 19:246-250.

Kim IS, Baek SH (2010). Mouse models for breast cancer metastasis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 394:443-447.

Kim IY, Han SY, Moon A (2004a). Phthalates inhibit tamoxifen-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. J Toxicol Environ Health, 67:2025-2035.

Kim JB, O’Hare MJ, Stein R (2004b). Models of breast cancer: is merging human and animal models the future? Breast Cancer Res, 6:22-30.

King MC, Marks JH, Mandell JB (2003). Breast and ovarian cancer risks due to inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Science, 302:643-46.

Klann A, Levy G, Lutz I, et al. (2005). Estrogen-like effects of ultraviolet screen 3-(4methylbenzylidene)-camphor (Eusolex 6300) on cell proliferation and gene induction in mammalian and amphibian cells. Environ Res, 97:274-281.

Kleinerman RA (2006). Cancer risks following diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure in children. Ped Radiol, 36 (Suppl. 2):121-125.

Klip H, Burger CW, Kenemans P, van Leeuwen FE (2000). Cancer risk associated with subfertility and ovulation induction: A review. Cancer Causes Control, 11:319-344.

Kliukiene J, Tynes T, Anderson A (2003). Follow-up of radio and telegraph operators with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev, 12:301-307.

Kliukiene J, Tynes T, Andersen A (2004). Residential and occupational exposures to 50-Hz magnetic fields and breast cancer in women: A population-based study. Am J Epidemiol, 159:852-861.

Kloog I, Haim A, Stevens RG, Barchana M, Portnov BA (2008). Chronobiol Int, 25:65-81.

Kolstad, H.A. (2008). Nightshift work and risk of breast cancer and other cancers: A critical review of the epidemiologic evidence. Scand J Work Environ Health, 34:5-22.

Korde LA, Wu AH, Fears T, et al (2009). Childhood soy intake and breast cancer risk in Asian American women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 18:1-10.

Koppe JG, Bartonova A, Bolte G, et al. (2006). Exposure to multiple environmental agents and their effect. Acta Paediat, 95 (Suppl 453):106-113.

Kortenkamp A (2006). Breast cancer, oestrogens and environmental pollutants: a re-evaluation from a mixture perspective. Int J Androl, 29:193-198.

Kotsopoulos J, Librach CL, Lubinski J, et a.l (2008). Infertility, treatment of infertility, and the risk of breast cancer among women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations: a case-control study. Cancer Causes Control, 19:1111-1119.

Kotzias D, Geiss O, Tirendi S, et al. (2009). Exposure to multiple air contaminants in public buildings, schools, and kindergartens — the European indoor air monitoring and exposure assessment (airmex) study. Fresenius Environ Bull, 18:670-681.

Krieger N, Löwy I, Aronowitz R, et al. (2005). Hormone replacement therapy, cancer, controversies, and women’s health: historical, epidemiological, biological, clinical, and advocacy perspectives. J Epidemiol Community Health, 59:740-748.

Kristensen, S.L., Ramlau-Hansen, C.H., Ernst, E., Olsen, S.F., Bonde, J.P., Vested, A., Halldorsson, T.I., Becher, G., Hug, L.S., & Toft, G. (2013). Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances on female reproduction. Hum Reprod, 28(12), 3337-3348.

Kruk J, Aboul-Enein HY (2006). Environmental exposure, and other behavioral risk factors in breast cancer. Curr Cancer Ther Rev, 2: 3-21.

Kulkarni PS, Crespo JG, Afonso CAM (2008). Dioxins sources and current remediation technologies: A review. Environ Int, 34:139-153.

Kumle M, Weiderpass E, Braaten T, et al. (2002). Use of oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk: The Norwegian-Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health Cohort Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 11:1375-1381.

Kuruto-Niwa R, Tateoka Y, Usuki Y, et al. (2006). Measurement of bisphenol A concentration in human colostrum. Chemosphere, 66: 1160-1164.

Kyle, A.D., Balmes, J.R., Buffler, P.A., & Lee, P.R. (2006). Integrating research, surveillance, and practice in environmental public health tracking. Envir Health Persp 114, 980–984.


Laban C, Bustin SA, Jenkins PJ (2003). The GH-IGF-1 axis and breast cancer. Trends Endocrinol Metab, 14:28-34.

Labreche, FP, Goldberg, MS (1997). Exposure to organic solvents and breast cancer in women: A hypothesis. Am J Ind Med, 32:1-14.

Lacroix M, Leclercq G (2004). Relevance of breast cancer cell lines as models for breast tumours: an update. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 83:249-289.

Laden F, Collman G, Iwamoto K, et al. (2001). 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chloro-phenyl) ethylene and polychlorinated biphenyls and breast cancer: Combined analysis of five U.S. studies. J Natl Cancer Inst, 93:768-776.

Laden F, Ishibe N, Hankinson SE, et al. (2002). Polychlorinated biphenyls, cytochrome P450 1A1, and breast cancer risk in the Nurses’ Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 11:1560-1565.

LaKind JS, Berlin CM, Sjodin A, et al. (2009). Do human milk concentrations of persistent organic chemicals really decline during lactation? Chemical concentrations during lactation and milk/serum partitioning. Environ Health Perspect, 117:1625-1631.

LaMerrill M, Kuruvilla BS, Pomp D, et al. (2009). Dietary fat alters body composition, mammary development, and cytochrome P450 induction after maternal TCDD exposure in DBA/2J mice with low-responsive aryl hydrocarbon receptors. Environ Health Perspect, 117:1414-1419.

Land CE (1995). Studies of cancer and radiation dose among A-bomb survivors: The example of breast cancer. J Am Med Assoc, 274:402-407.

Land CE (1998). Epidemiology of radiation-related breast cancer. Workshop Summary: National Action Plan on Breast Cancer, Breast Cancer Etiology Working Group, Workshop on Medical Ionizing Radiation and Human Breast Cancer. November 17-18, 1997.

Land CE, Tokunaga M, Koyama K, et al. (2003). Incidence of female breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-1990. Radiat Res, 160:707-717.

Landrigan PJ, Sonawane B, Butler RN, et al. (2005). Early environmental origins of neurodegenerative disease in later life. Environ Health Perspect, 113:1230-1233.

Lang IA, Galloway TS, Scarlett A, et al. (2008). Association of urinary bisphenol A concentration with medical disorders and laboratory abnormalities in adults. J Am Med Assoc, 300:1303-1310.

LaPensee EW, Tuttle TR, Fox SR, Ben-Jonathan N (2009). Bisphenol A at low nanomolar doses confers chemoresistance in estrogen receptor alpha positive and negative breast cancer cells. Environ Health Perspect, 117: 175-180.

LaPensee EW, LaPensee CR, Fox S, et al. (2010). Bisphenol A and estradiol are equipotent in antagonizing cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells. Cancer Lett, 290:167-173.

Larson PS, Ungarelli RA, de las Morenas A, et al. (2006). In utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) does not increase genomic instability in normal or neoplastic breast epithelium. Cancer, 107:2122-2126.

Latini G, Del Vecchio A, Massaro M, et al. (2006). Phthalate exposure and male infertility. Toxicol, 226:90-98.

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Lee PN, Hamling J (2006). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and risk of breast cancer in nonsmoking women: A review with meta-analyses. Inhalation Toxicol, 18:1053-1070.

Lee S-A, Shu X-O, Li H, et al. (2009). Adolescent and adult soy food intake and breast cancer: Results from the Shanghai Women’s Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr, 89:1920-1926.

Leffers H, Naesby M, Vendelbo B, et al. (2001). Oestrogenic potencies of zeranol, oestradiol, diethylstilbestrol, bisphenol-A and genistein: Implications for exposure assessment of potential endocrine disrupters. Hum Reprod, 16:1037-1045.

Lerner-Geva L, Keinan-Boker L, Blumstein T, et al. (2006). Infertility, ovulation induction treatments and the incidence of breast cancer: A historical prospective cohort of Israeli women. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 100:201-212.

Lewis BC, Hudgins S, Lewis A, et al. (2001). In utero and lactational treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin impairs mammary gland differentiation but does not block the response to exogenous estrogen in the postpubertal rat. Toxicol Sci, 62:63-74.

Li D, Zhou Z, Qing Y, et al. (2009). Occupational exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA) and the risk of self-reported male sexual dysfunction. Human Reprod, doi:10.1093/humrep/dep381.

Li, J., Humphreys, K., Heikkinen, T., Aittomäki, K., Blomqvist, C., Pharoah, P.D.P., Dunning, A.M., Ahmed, S., Hooning, M.J., Martens, J.W.M., et al. (2011). A combined analysis of genome-wide association studies in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 126, 717–727.

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