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Phthalates

STRONG VOICES

Janet Gray, Ph.D.
Janet Gray, Ph.D.

As author of our 2008 and 2010 State of the Evidence reports, Dr. Gray drives the science behind all our work.

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Pregnancy and Childhood Exposures

For many years it was believed that the risks of harmful chemicals increased with increasing exposure, and that adults and children responded similarly to toxic exposures. But scientists now know that the timing, duration and pattern of exposure are at least as important as the dose. The timing of exposure may be especially critical.

So while it’s good to limit exposure to toxic chemicals and radiation at every stage of life, it is even more important during critical periods, including gestation, childhood and pregnancy.

  • Prenatal Exposures

    Prenatal chemical exposure can have profound effects on subsequent breast cancer risk.

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  • Childhood and Adolescence

    Girls are entering puberty earlier—in part due to childhood exposures to endocrine disruptors—increasing breast cancer risk.

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  • Pregnancy and Lactation

    Exposure to toxic chemicals during this vulnerable period may contribute to increased risks of pregnancy-related breast cancer.

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