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Annie Leonard
Annie Leonard

As the writer and host of The Story of Stuff, Annie has inspired millions to work toward a sustainable future.

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The Backstory on BPA

Bisphenol A (BPA) was considered for use as a synthetic estrogen before scientists discovered it could be useful in making plastics and resins. Its shift in application, however, didn't change its estrogen-like properties.

Today BPA is one of the most widely produced chemicals in the world, used in hard plastic bottles and dishware, drink cans, receipts, dental sealants and more.

But where it really stands out is food cans, which are usually lined with BPA.

Research suggests that food is the primary BPA exposure source for Americans and that BPA leaches from the can into the food, especially food that's high in fat, salt, acid or all three.


How does BPA increase breast cancer risk? Learn the science behind this estrogenic chemical.

Chemical facts: BPA >

Exposure to BPA not only may elevate breast cancer risk, but also may interfere with chemotherapy treatment for the disease.

BPA in Cans and People
Market Action
Congressional Action
Other Government Action

Why BPA Is in Cans, and How It Ends Up in Us

Food cans are lined with an epoxy resin that contains BPA. This lining forms a barrier between the metal and the food, which helps create a tight seal so that the food is safe from bacterial contamination.

But while BPA-based epoxy resins solve one food-safety problem, they unfortunately create another, as BPA can leach from the resin and make its way into food. This is problematic because BPA is an estrogenic chemical, and laboratory studies show that it is linked to breast cancer and an array of other health concerns.

Why does BPA leach from the epoxy-resin can liner? The most common epoxy resin used in food cans is formed by binding two chemicals, BPA and epichlorohydrin. When these two molecules bind, the resulting copolymer can be incomplete and unstable, allowing BPA to migrate from the liner into food. BPA (and its chemical derivative bisphenol A diglycidyl ether) tends to leach more when heated. And because BPA is lipophilic, or fat-seeking, it tends to leach more into fatty foods.


Can manufacturers are beginning to use alternative liners to BPA in cans. Any alternatives to BPA, however, must be studied for their effects on health—switching out a chemical we know is harmful for one that's unknown and untested is just kicking the can down the road.

Market Action

As shoppers we have a right to know what's in the food we buy. That's why the Breast Cancer Fund launched the Cans Not Cancer campaign, aimed at convincing manufacturers to replace BPA in canned food with a safe alternative and to tell the public about their changes.

In its short history, the Cans Not Cancer campaign has educated thousands of advocates, directed 70,000 messages to leading canned food makers, revealed the presence of BPA in classic kids' foods and Thanksgiving staples, and secured promises from manufacturers to move away from BPA.

We're proud to say that many canned food makers, including industry leader Campbell's, are phasing out BPA. Problem solved? Not exactly. Most of these companies aren't telling us what they're using instead of BPA, and we have concerns about the alternatives.

Congressional Action

Thanks to growing public concern over the use of BPA in food cans, as mounting scientific evidence about its health risks, and leadership from the Breast Cancer Fund, legislators are stepping in to get BPA out of food containers. In June 2013, Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.), a longtime supporter of restricting BPA, introduced the BPA in Food Packaging Right to Know Act, which would require the labeling of all canned food containing BPA. The Breast Cancer Fund is working closely with Feinstein to advocate for its passage.

Other Government Action

Because of health concerns about BPA exposure, which include increased risk for breast and prostate cancer as well as obesity, early puberty, cardiac disease and lowered sperm counts, even at the low levels found in most people, France will suspend use in all food packaging by 2015. In addition, the United States, Belgium and Denmark have banned BPA from all infant feeding and food packaging.  Sweden is exploring a broad ban on BPA, and even China has promised to ban BPA from baby bottles.

In 2013, thirteen states introduced legislation either banning or requiring the labeling of BPA in food packaging, while another three states considered bills banning BPA in kids' products. Since 2009, 11 states and several localities have restricted the use of BPA in baby products including bottles, cups, pacifiers, infant formula and baby food.